Os Ik

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Os Ik

Mensaxepor Casdeiro » 14 Dec 2014, 18:08

Onte sorprendín a moitos na xuntanza de socios de Véspera de Nada celebrada en Pousadoira ao mencionar o caso da etnia Ik, do norte de Uganda, como caso de colapso social absoluto que chega mesmo ao nivel da familia, pois viven illados e só se xuntan por parellas para construir unha casa e procrear, pero abandonan á súa sorte os nenos cando chegan aos 3 anos. Moitos non me crían, pero eu asegurei ter lido o caso de fontes fiables.

Hoxe lembei unha delas: Joseph Tainter no seu clásico The collapse of complex societies (p. 17-18). El coido que usa como fonte un traballo dun tal Colin M. Turnbull (1978): Rethinking the Ik: a Functional Non-Social System. In Extinction and Survival in human Populations, ed. Charles D. Laughlin, Jr. & Ivan A. Brady, pp. 49-75. Columbia University Press, New York.

Copio esa parte do libro:

The Ik are a people of northern Uganda who live at what must surely be the extreme
of deprivation and disaster. A largely hunting and gathering people who have in
recent times practiced some crop planting, the Ik are not classifiable as a complex
society in the sense of Chapter 2 . They are, nonetheless, a morbidly fascinating case of
collapse in which a former, low level of social complexity has essentially disappeared.
Due to drought and disruption by national boundaries of the traditional cycle of
movement, the Ik live in such a food- and water-scarce environment that there is
absolutely no advantage to reciprocity and social sharing. The Ik, in consequence,
display almost nothing of what could be considered societal organization. They are so
highly fragmented that most activities, especially subsistence, are pursued
individually. Each Ik will spend days or weeks on his or her own, searching for food
and water. Sharing is virtually nonexistent. Two siblings or other kin can live
side-by-side, one dying of starvation and the other well nourished, without the latter
giving the slightest assistance to the other. The family as a social unit has become
dysfunctional. Even conjugal pairs don't fonn a cooperative unit except for a few
specific purposes. Their motivation for marriage or cohabitation is that one person
can't build a house alone. The members of a conjugal pair forage alone, and do not
share food. Indeed, their foraging is so independent that if both members happen to
be at their residence together it is by accident.

Each conjugal compound is stockaded against the others. Several compounds
together form a village, but this is a largely meaningless occurrence . Villages have no
political functions or organization, not even a central meeting place.
Children are minimally cared for by their mothers until age three, and then are put
out to fend for themselves. This separation is absolute. By age three they are expected
to find their own food and shelter, and those that survive do provide for themselves .
Children band into age-sets for protection, since adults will steal a child's food
whenever possible. No food sharing occurs within an age-set. Groups of children will
forage in agricultural fields, which scares off birds and baboons . This is often given as
the reason for having children.

Although little is known about how the Ik got to their present situation, there are
some indications of former organizational patterns. They possess clan names,
although today these have no structural significance. They live in villages, but these
no longer have any political meaning. The traditional authority structure of family,
lineage, and clan leaders has been progressively weakened. It appears that a former
level of organization has simply been abandoned by the Ik as unprofitable and
unsuitable in their present distress (Turnbull 1978).

Hai información mesmo na Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ik_people
Preparándome para o peor escenario, mentres laboro para construír o mellor dos posibles.
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